The cElementTree Module

Dating techniques Photo by: Bastos Dating techniques are procedures used by scientists to determine the age of an object or a series of events. The two main types of dating methods are relative and absolute. Relative dating methods are used to determine only if one sample is older or younger than another. Absolute dating methods are used to determine an actual date in years for the age of an object. Relative dating Before the advent of absolute dating methods in the twentieth century, nearly all dating was relative. The main relative dating method is stratigraphy pronounced stra-TI-gra-fee , which is the study of layers of rocks or the objects embedded within those layers. This method is based on the assumption which nearly always holds true that deeper layers of rock were deposited earlier in Earth’s history, and thus are older than more shallow layers. The successive layers of rock represent successive intervals of time.

Radioactive Dating

Above photo shows modern Photo Courtesy this J-Site. The Chinese Zodiac is part of an elaborate and laborious system based on Chinese astrology, cosmology, and divination. Although replaced in modern times by the Gregorian solar calendar, the Zodiac is still used today unofficially as a popular method of divination in many Asian and Western nations.

Uses of Radioisotopes: Inside an ionization detector is a small amount (perhaps 1/th of a gram) of americium The radioactive element americium has a half-life of years, and is a good source of alpha particles. U is used for dating rocks. U (half-life of billion years) decays to lead The ratio of U to.

The bone was 68 million years old, and conventional wisdom about fossilization is that all soft tissue, from blood to brains , decomposes. Only hard parts, like bones and teeth, can become fossils. But for some people, the discovery raised a different question. How do scientists know the bones are really 68 million years old?

Today’s knowledge of fossil ages comes primarily from radiometric dating, also known as radioactive dating. Radiometric dating relies on the properties of isotopes. These are chemical elements, like carbon or uranium, that are identical except for one key feature — the number of neutrons in their nucleus. Atoms may have an equal number of protons and neutrons. If, however, there are too many or too few neutrons, the atom is unstable, and it sheds particles until its nucleus reaches a stable state.

Think of the nucleus as a pyramid of building blocks.

How Carbon-14 Dating Works

Full Answer The key to an age of a substance is the decay-product ratio. The ratio of the original isotope and its decay product determines how many half-lives have occurred since the sample formed. A half-life measures the time it takes for one half of a radio isotope’s atoms to break down into another element. For instance, if an object has 50 percent of its decay product, it has been through one half-life.

How is radioactive dating used to determine the age of fossils. By comparing it is the counting of the fossils is used to work out the ages. S. A different tectonic. Absolute dating vary in regular sequences time; radioactive isotopes, elements. Different tectonic. What dating as is a fossil dating.

These radioactive isotopes are unstable, decaying over time at a predictable rate. As the isotopes decay, they give off particles from their nucleus and become a different isotope. The parent isotope is the original unstable isotope, and daughter isotopes are the stable product of the decay. Half-life is the amount of time it takes for half of the parent isotopes to decay. The decay occurs on a logarithmic scale. For example, the half-life of C is 5, years.

In the first 5, years, the organism will lose half of its C isotopes. In another 5, years, the organism will lose another half of the remaining C isotopes. This process continues over time, with the organism losing half of the remaining C isotopes each 5, years. Radioactive Dating of Fossils Fossils are collected along with rocks that occur from the same strata. These samples are carefully cataloged and analyzed with a mass spectrometer.

The mass spectrometer is able to give information about the type and amount of isotopes found in the rock.

FAQ – Radioactive Age-Dating

Theories predict the relative production of the different isotopes, and it is desirable to be able to compare these with observation. The study of terrestrial abundances of radioactive elements yields information about the age of the solar system, which is discussed below. Nevertheless, the compositions of many objects are sufficiently similar to make it worthwhile to try to construct a typical table of abundances.

Different forms of this element are often used in a type of radio metric dating that determines the ages of objects up to about 40, Years.

The ratio of carbon to carbon at the moment of death is the same as every other living thing, but the carbon decays and is not replaced. The carbon decays with its half-life of 5, years, while the amount of carbon remains constant in the sample. By looking at the ratio of carbon to carbon in the sample and comparing it to the ratio in a living organism, it is possible to determine the age of a formerly living thing fairly precisely.

A formula to calculate how old a sample is by carbon dating is: So, if you had a fossil that had 10 percent carbon compared to a living sample, then that fossil would be: However, the principle of carbon dating applies to other isotopes as well. Potassium is another radioactive element naturally found in your body and has a half-life of 1.

The use of various radioisotopes allows the dating of biological and geological samples with a high degree of accuracy. However, radioisotope dating may not work so well in the future.

Chemical element

READ MORE Properties, occurrence, and uses Potassium metal is soft and white with a silvery lustre, has a low melting point , and is a good conductor of heat and electricity. Potassium imparts a lavender colour to a flame, and its vapour is green. Potash mine at Esterhazy, Sask. The waste liquors from certain saltworks may contain up to 40 grams per litre of potassium chloride and are used as a source of potassium.

Because of their unique decay rates, different elements are used for dating different age ranges. For example, the decay of potassium to argon is used to date rocks older than 20, years, and the decay of uranium to lead is used for rocks older than 1 million years.

Check new design of our homepage! Carbon Uses in Everyday Life There are many different carbon uses in everyday life and this element has been used by man since time immemorial. Read on for more information on carbon uses and properties ScienceStruck Staff Last Updated: Jan 29, Carbon is an element that is the found in abundance in the earth’s crust. It is found in group 14 of the Periodic Table and has the atomic number 6.

Carbon, which is non metallic in nature, is the 4th most abundant element in the universe and the 15th most abundant element in the Earth’s crust. The name ‘carbon’ comes from the Latin word carbo which means coal or charcoal. The major source of carbon is the deposits of coal that are buried deep inside the earth. There are three allotropes of carbon, namely graphite, diamond and amorphous carbon. Carbon is a highly stable element that can combine with almost any other element to form a number of useful compounds.

Organic chemistry, a branch of chemistry has been dedicated to the study of the properties and uses of carbon, as a chemical element and in its compound forms. Uses of Carbon in Everyday Life There are many limited uses of carbon in its elemental form. But once it combines with another element, it changes itself into a useful substance for numerous things.

Radiometric dating

Where is the majority of gold mined? Africa and North America is where what is mined? What is used to plate the Academy Awards? Gold is used to plate what?

Radiometric dating artifacts, and artifacts, in an artifact. Other elements that occur in the ages of radioactive potassium Your job is what scientists call two or specimen by comparing it is used to determine a half-life is a.

Visual spectrum This site, closely coupled to The Natures of the Stars and The Hertzsprung- Russell HR Diagram , provides an introduction to the spectra of stars and allied celestial objects. Here we examine the principal way in which astronomers have learned so much about the stars. Spectra has been translated into Romanian. The visual spectrum Pass sunlight through a triangular prism or bounce it off the finely grooved surface of a compact audio disk and see it break merrily into a band of pure sparkling color, its “spectrum,” familiar in the colors of a rainbow, in light glittering from newly fallen snow, in the rings and haloes around a partly- clouded Sun and Moon, in the flash of a cut diamond, and in so many other facets of nature.

The classic colors red, orange, yellow, green, blue, and violet connect in a seemingly infinite number of shades, one blending smoothly into the next. Together they constitute the “visual spectrum” or “optical spectrum” because it is the part of the full spectrum that is seen with the human eye. The rainbow is a natural spectrum caused by the refraction and reflection of sunlight through raindrops, and shows that sunlight consists of a continuous run – – a continuum — of colors from red to violet.

Note the fainter outer bow caused by double reflections inside the raindrops. Kaler Extending the light: Most of the energy of the Universe is transported in this way, by radiation. The visual spectrum of light, however, is but a tiny portion of the whole picture, of a huge spectrum of radiation that extends in both directions from the edges of the rainbow. If with superhuman eyes you could see beyond red, you would encounter the “infrared” — felt as heat on the skin — which would merge gradually into the familiar “radio” portion of the spectrum.

Shorter than violet you would see the ultraviolet, that which gives us tans and sunburns, and then you would encounter much more dangerous X-ray radiation and finally deadly gamma rays. The electromagnetic spectrum runs from short gamma rays at left to long radio waves at right.